This graph traces employment over the past 43 years for three categories of people: Black, Hispanic, and White. Specifically, the graph shows the percentage of these groups who are employed. Each group’s employment follows basically the same general trend line, at different levels, but we can see some clear differences.
White employment has been the least volatile—that is, least likely to change rapidly or unpredictably from point to point. Black employment and Hispanic employment are not as steady; and, until recently, Hispanic employment has been especially volatile. These sharp upturns and downturns for Hispanic and Black workers, both in the boom-recession cycle and through the seasonal cycle, mean they are hired more quickly but are also fired more quickly.
Besides becoming less volatile, Hispanic employment has closed the gap with White employment: It had generally been between White and Black employment, but since 2000 it has most often been at the top. Black employment, however, has consistently maintained a gap of 5-10% compared with White employment.
Look to FRASER, FRED’s sibling site, for a deeper examination of historical demographics related to employment: The statistical publications “Employment and Earnings” (1954-2007) and “Women in the Labor Force: A Databook” (2004-2010) are good examples. The latter focuses mainly on differences between the sexes, but also provides statistical tables that relate to race, including one on multiple jobholders.
How this graph was created: Search for “Employment-Population Ratio” and then “Black,” “Hispanic,” and “White.”
Suggested by Emily Furlow.